A mass grave of Holocaust victims in Ukraine was desecrated for the second time this year. The desecration at the killing pit of Raflivka, a town in Ukraine’s northwest, may have been the work of grave diggers looking for gold amid the remains of 2,500 Jews whom the Nazis and collaborators killed there in 1942.

Between 1918 and 1939, Raflivka had about 600 Jews, who made up a third of the town’s population, according to the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum in Israel.

Following their occupation of what is now Ukraine in 1941, the Nazis and local helpers rounded up 2,500 Jews from neighbouring villages in the Raflivka Ghetto. On Aug. 29, 1942, the Jews were marched to a woods, made to bury their own mass grave and shot in groups into the pit.