Helma Goldmark, Austrian Holocaust refugee who joined resistance, dies at 98

Helma Goldmark, Austrian Holocaust refugee who joined resistance, dies at 98 in the United States.

She fled her native Austria and made her way to Italy, where as a teen she helped secure supplies for an operation that produced false documents for Jewish refugees.

Goldmark had lost her mother to cancer before the Anschluss, and her only sibling, a sister 19 years her senior, lived in Italy. With her father — and then alone, after he was taken to a concentration camp and murdered — she set out on a perilous journey that took her to fascist Croatia and Nazi-occupied Rome.

After the liberation of Rome, Mrs Goldmark worked for the American military government as a translator and later for the American Joint Distribution Committee.

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